English version July
Empty dimension as the appearance of everything
(Quantum - gravity,
dark matter & energy...
Or, possibly, a
suggestion for part of the "United theory")
Physicist (B.sc.), Business (MBA) and real estate appraiser
Revealed, out of now day's
knowledge & available technological means, that most of the universe is composed
out of unreachable deep blank volume. Consequence, one can, easily, describe the space as, mostly, complex out of almost
blank multi-dimensional space points (black dots, Fig #2), each
taking up tiny, up to
dimensions in the nil, volume.
Assume that any such point is, all direction, surrounded
by most similar points and consider quantum theory, which, inter alia, means:
• Mass, even aspires
zero, has its typical: self-frequency & wavelength.
the mass (quantum dimension), longer its self-frequency wavelength.
• Larger the
mass, shorter its self-frequency wavelength, unobservable above quantum sizes (Classic meaning).
Assume almost completely blank points,
aims for zero mass, combined quantum theory reference (second mark), obtain huge,
and actually strives to infinite, wavelength characteristic point. This wavelength, coming
out off the point, all possible: directions & dimensions can be imagined (Fig #1)
as pushing the space away, in a way of
creating rejection outwards
the point (defined: "point space distortion creation").
Fig # 1: an almost completely empty point, black
circle, pushing the the space, all
directions away, red arrows
It is time to suggest mathematical
transformation conclusion vectors, inclusion of "Lorentz transformation",
in a way the velocity summarized "Lorentz
transformation", is an
individual case. With the transformation suggested, summarizing each vector
warping space, create all points around, must be, in all directions &
dimensions possible, by the most intensity, the warp space strength creates a
single point, equals this power when dealing with countless points. Example of
transformation": Suppose one moves at the speed of light on a train
that moves at the speed of light that, in turn, moves on a train that moves at
the speed of light and so on, n Such trains (n aspires infinite).
Outcome of "Lorentz
transformation" generalization and the fact that the speed of light is
the maximum nature possible speed (Private Relativity Theory), that our
relative to earth surface (n trains), is no more, but much closer, to the speed of light itself.
Fig # 2:
countless almost completely empty points and their impact on space (Two
examples: top right and enlarged one at the center)
Using the transformation suggested
to sum vectors created both: all points around, and space point self
distortion, as long as the point mass aims for zero and assuming an homogeneous
dispersion of Infinite points number at the surrounding space, get the vectors
to balance each other (zero sum), means that the net opposite effect on
consideration point is offset - "loose
equilibrium". Investigate the summary of both vectors: space &
self, created by tested point, in case the point mass is growing above quantum
#3), Get the wavelength of the point self frequency is "reduced". Thus, after describing
the wavelength as pushing the space away, the intensity of its space curve is
decreased (Fig #3, blue arrows). Accepted that the summary vector space
all points warping create around (red), which, on the mass
point, remains unchanged, is greater than the "reduced" space
warp mass self produced, in a way that the net total summary vectors warping
space is into the mass, means the mass is "held" by space at "steady equilibrium", much like the
mass classic definition - "body
resistance to state changes".
Fig: # 3 red
arrows depicted space warp effect, created all points around one large mass
which is exceeds the reduced space distortion creates the mass itself,
Hence, we see that, at nonzero mass,
the quantum theory itself predict a space warping toward the mass, exactly as
general relativity theory prediction to explains gravity existence.
Chapter 2: Dark Matter/Energy
Further to the connection between
quantum theory & gravity discussion; is the time to deal with another
aspect of self-frequency quantum sizes bodies. It is known that, having a body
mass, one can easily calculate its both: self frequency & characterized wavelength,
which, as mentioned earlier, as far as we consider quantum sizes, is larger.
For example purpose, refer to an
almost empty point/"black hole", where part of the "wave function" can, in average over a long time, be
out of the hole dimensions (defined: "tunnel
effect" or "black hole
Determine the "amount of matter" as a function of the observed part of
the "wave function" and,
at the exampled "black hole", supposed wavelength and
self frequency such that part of the wave function, lets say 90 percent over
time average, is outside the boundaries of the black hole, thus due to the
determination emerging of the private relativity theory, that the speed of
light is finite and the maximum possible, it is obtained that a viewer which is
inside the event horizon of a black hole measure only the matter amount
proportional to the remainder wave function part (10% over time average) while
the mass he measure, since it is concentrated in the gravity center, would be
the total average sum over time, outside and inside the black hole.
Assume, the entire universes known,
is like the black hole describe, accept that, viewers living inside, should
feel mass that has no material or energy attached (defined: "dark
Fig: # 4:
Description an average wave function over long time, red arrows, Which partly
outside partly inside the black hole border, marked black.
Chapter 3: Watcher outside the Black Hole
Watcher, located outside, measures
only the amount of matter proportional to the wave function part which is, in
time average, out of the black hole, at the example 90%, while the mass he
measure is the same mass as a inside
viewer measure. This 90 percent disperse outside the black hole space, all
directions equally at no preferred one, so that, in each space point it has a
very much minor impact.
The sum vectors effect of all
universe elements wave functions (black holes, masses and emptiness), on a
space point, assuming homogeneous dispersion, state the "matter amount/energy levels,
characteristics of the void" (E=mc^2) which would be
proportional to the universe amount of matter. As shrink the black hole
extent to the size of the minimum unit energy/mass possible, one quanta only,
it is found that, over time, nearly 100% of the wave function is outside the hole.
This quant disperses, homogeneously, outside black hole space (See chapter 12:
about the dimensions limitation and the formation of quantum), over to
infinite, with now preferred & equally: directions. So, it is being, whole
and none of it, all at once ,everywhere in space defined .Thus, measuring
device that places the quantum at any location or speed, in the space defined,
in fact, being its minimum possible energy unit/mass, eliminates the
possibility of finding (measuring) it, at the same time, anywhere else in the
Obtained that, two different
measurements, by times and distances, which seemingly contradictory the
principle: the speed of light is the highest speed possible, which is within the
base of the private relativity theory, has no longer a contradiction, since
the quantum has always been whole and no part of it to exist at the two points
Chapter 4: Time/Universe age
Investigating the term "Time" shall begin by highlight
that mentioned earlier: each point wavelength & frequency is characterized
by over long time period typical average values, (defined:
Hence, the next obvious step would be assuming there are wave function harmonic
oscillations around the equilibrium point (defined:
"steady equilibrium point"). For simplicity discussion purpose,
let's assume a single-dimension universe (unit mass), quantum or non-quantum
dimension, where the average wavelength over time, is an integer multiplier of
a very large number of individual elementary distance units
Fig #5: Harmonic oscillation of the examined point, its center at left, Around equilibrium one dimension point, right small point.
At a random time, a wave function oscillation of (x) elemetary unit length measured at
either right or left side from equilibrium (into or out of the mass unit, Fig #5,
red bottom arrows). Being the equilibrium point a stable equilibrium,
statistically, at coming measures, the wave function vibration strive to return (Fig #5, red
arrows top) .Since, according to relativity theory, "speed of light" (Marked
C) is the maximum speed possible, hence the time return to equilibrium, from
the wave moving, at almost the speed of light, point of view, is
,approximately, t (time units) = X (Single length units)/C ( km/sec)
(t defined: "Basic Time Unit").
These return time &
oscillation amplitude, as an out off the wave function not moving watcher
measure, as the relativity theory predicts are much longer - the time he
measure (twin paradox) could be at about 14 billion year (approximate known
universe age) when the oscillation amplitude he measure can be about the same
magnitude as the known universe dimensions.
Does this mean that when dealing
with quantum beings, such as electromagnetic radiation, distance & time are
roughly the same variables - multiplication/difference by only a constant (speed
of light "c")?
In my opinion - since time defined
as a scalar, which, at least on average over many time units, proceed at one
direction only, while distance (position), being a vector, can proceed at
varied directions - the answer is negative
Obviously, when treat time as a
vector size, like most other sizes, with power and direction, we get the option
of "parallel universes". Using these universes, it can be, theoretically possible, to pass backward
& forward in time.
Chapter 5: The Steady State Theories
It is clearly visible that the
theory showed, generality with three known space dimension, has more likely
corresponds (with slightly movements around the steady state) to the universe structure theory known the "steady state theory", less to the one known the "Big Bang theory", which is
more prevalent today. Thus, since today the universe is seen as expanding, its
current situation according our theory, found in one of the two following
options: expanding either from the interior imaginary three-dimensional ball
formed by summing up the three dimensional equilibrium points, back towards the
surface of the three-dimensional equilibrium ball
((defined: "steady equilibrium ball
surface" or "ball surface")
lefttop red arrow) or, alternatively, out
from steady equilibrium ball (Fig #5, lower right red arrow).
Perhaps, now it is appropriate to add that when the mass of
the universe is indeed negligible, as assumed, then oscillation around the
equilibrium ball could, on one hand, expanded up to almost infinite, or, on the
other hand, shrink almost into zero dimensions - the "Big Bang" beginning dimensions. So we get the "Big
Bang", at least about the universe origin question at one singular point,
to be a private case of the "steady
state", as described.
Chapter 6: Material/anti material
As we demonstrate so far, any:
emptiness, particle, unit masse or the universe itself, at any given time, is
at oscillation around equilibrium ball surface. The possible oscillations modes
describe in the previous chapter.
• "Minimizing" from outside back towards the steady equilibrium ball surface (Fig #5, upper right red arrow) or from the ball surface back into three dimensional imaginary ball, created by summing up the three dimensional space equilibrium points (Fig #5, lower left red arrow).
So it is accepting that:
• In the case of
"reduction" (Fig #6) ,the
reduction vector summary space create (black center arrow), is slightly offset by
space warp vector, generates the point self-frequency itself (below in
blue), in a way that summing up with the space warp
vector, creating dots around (red above), gives a total vector inside
Fig #6: Reduction, demonstration at one dimension.
In the case of "expansion" (Fig #7), the
summary vector space, expansion create (black arrow), is
adding to the vector space warping creates by self-point frequency (Blue arrow)
hence summarizing up with the vector space warping, create points around (red arrow),
getting ,as soon as dealing with quantum order mass, that the total warp vector
is outward the equilibrium ball surface (defined :"rejection/anti-matter").
Fig #7: Expansion, demonstration at one dimension
• In the case of mass at above quantum size "expansion", (Fig #7), the fact that the space vector
distortion created by self frequency (blue arrow) is negligible, as stated in the
first chapter, we might get the vector space warping, points around the mass
create (red arrow), to overcome the sum of the space warp
vectors, create the expansion (black arrow) and the self frequency
vector. Consequently, summary all vector space warping might estate a net
vector warping of space inside - "matter".
Hence, the rarity relative
observation of "anti matter"
is occurred, mainly in case of quantum scale expansion.
Conjunction with the first chapter
work assumption, that most of the universe consists of almost completely empty
points; it is accept that almost half of the universe is complex out of
Chapter 7: Speed of Light
So far, chapter five, we show that,
as harmonic oscillations around a "steady
equilibrium ball" given, together with the implicit assumption that at
all directions conditions are the same (perfect multi-dimensional ball), the
steady-state theory is obtained. Continuing, assuming all directions are alike,
and ask: Is the speed of expansion/reduction (Chapter 6) constant "C"?
The answer to this question seems to
be very simple. As a harmonic oscillation drives out of a released nervous
spring, has the highest speed on the center (only kinetic energy) and the
lowest on both ends (zero for a very short time). In such a way, at our
multidimensional ball, one can imagine the oscillation speed around a "stable equilibrium ball", as zero, at the edges, for a very
short time, maximum, almost infinite, at the center (equilibrium ball surface).
Hence, we get that the speed of light, which at a given time, assume to be the maximum possible speed in nature, must be equal to a oscillation moment velocity of the almost empty point/universe/black hole, and can vary ,over time, from zero (at edges) to almost infinity (at equilibrium point/ball).
The question to be asked is whether measuring the changes within the speed of light over many years, say today and a billion years ago, can help to conclude the today state of the universe (present accurately expansion location) and thus to deduce: the mass of the universe, the amount of meters, global gravity constant "G" ,characteristic energy level of the void and many other constants & variables ?
Chapter 8: Other Phenomena
As long as assumed perfect
multi-dimensional ball structure, and now any priority axis, it was possible to
use, the calculus math, result of the exampled one dimension universe to higher
dimensions. As changing the assumption slightly, the multi-ball is no longer perfect (yet much similar for a perfect multi-dimensional one), we should get,
around the central oscillations, secondary multi-dimensional oscillations
movements. As we are only three-dimensional space living creatures, side effects
of higher space secondary dimensions, due to imperfect-spherical, will be
extremely rare and shall all be described by names such as: color, spin etc
Chapter 9: Multi-Universes/"Inflation of Universes"
At the article first chapter, we talked
about multiple almost complete blank points. Later, chapters' #2 - #7, we built
the possibility that each such point could be considered as a complete, on its
own, universe. So assume that the universe known today is almost complete blank
point, one among many others, that make up a greater, by number orders of
magnitude, universe, than our (defined:
inside this father, there are many smaller, like our, universes call them
For example: As known, most of the atom
volume itself, the distance between the electrons and nucleus, for instance, is
almost completely empty, so it might include a countless like universes.
Remember that every material, including our bodies, is made up
of enormous such atoms, it is accepted that even within the material making up
our universe/body might be an innumerable similar smaller size universes.
All remains is to show, the obvious: due to the fact that all
sizes are getting smaller/bigger at the same order, in a way the laws of
physics (nature) remains unchanged, regardless the size, creature, like wise
human being, live in such a universe, will not notice by its relative size
(larger or smaller) .For example: assumed forty orders bigger/smaller universe
the meter is greater/less from ours, according to the factor, 10 ^40 respectively (one following forty zeros).
Chapter 10: Speed of Light and Quantum Sizes
At the article first part, mentioned
which revile out off the quantum theory, as smaller the mass as more
significant the quantum phenomena are. If so ,when live in smaller, by 40
magnitude orders from our universe, one might conclude that quantum phenomena
are more meaningful, conclusion which, at least prima facie, contradicts to
the physics principle invariance law, as in the previous section claimed to
exist, regardless of the universe relative size.
For quantum phenomena examples,
let's look, in both universes, at the speed of light. As known, body approaches
the speed of light has: its mass increased, its time decreased, and other
quantum phenomena. Assuming that when transition from "father Universe" to
"Baby universe" and visa versa one is, still, not be
able to notice any changes with the speed of light magnitude, then he shall not
be able notice any other changes in quantum phenomenon related, thus, it
proves, even if partially, regardless of the universe relative size, the
invariance principle law of physics.
As known, the speed of light in our universe,
at the current oscillation state (Chapter 7), is approximately
300,000 km/sec. Defined, for convenience, meter & second as the basic
measurement units for: distance & time, respectively get ,the speed of
light would be around 3 million (meter /sec) or 3 million (elementary time
units /elementary distance unit).
Showed, at the previous chapter that all units
increased/decreased, respectively, according the example by multiplying of 10^40 .
So, even inside a "baby universe",
which at the same oscillation state, one can define the speed of light exactly the same way, approximately 3 million (elementary time units/elementary distance units) -
mathematical (10^40/10^40 =1)
Thus, any observer, at any universe,
large or small in size orders, measure all magnitudes related to the speed of
light, at the same intensity, respect to the elementary measurement units
Assume, what on the surface seem to
be obvious, that all other quantum sizes behave the same way, get a watcher,
located at any same oscillation state universe situation, measure the same: mass
of the electron, Planck & gravity constants, etc .So, the supposedly
contradiction, has been solved and the physics law invariance principle,
regardless the relative universe size, is preserved.
Chapter 11: proposed experiment to test the theory
In this, last before final chapter, under the assumption that
determines the speed of light is the maximum possible speed in nature, equal
the accurate time oscillation speed (Chapter 7), we shall propose a mind experiment
to investigate their changes, since the universe beginning to present, all
under determination (Episode 5) that we live in a
expanded universe, which has two nature options: expansion out from equilibrium
ball surface or widened from inside toward the equilibrium ball.
Let us now consider the options:
According the first option, the
universe is expanding from the equilibrium ball surface, where the velocity of
light/oscillation is maximal, outward, so that the velocity of light that was
previously higher has decreasing over time. Hence a celestial object, today
assumed at 9 billion light-years distance away, in such a universe, is actually
farther away, so its real energy is higher than we think.
with the second option, which seems to be more in line with our current
universe state ,the universe is expanding from interior toward the equilibrium
ball. Then according chapter #6, combined the assumption that its
mass is at quantum sizes, our universe self behave outward as
antimatter/antiparticle. As mentioned, this case, the speed of light/oscillation at "birth of
the universe" was slower ,aiming for zero ,and increasing along time .So a
body, today measured at 9 billion light years away is actually closer.
Therefore, its real energy is much lower, bay the ratio of the square of the
distance differences, than we think.
Is the result of the second option,
which states that the universe far away objects are much closer than appears to
us might, even partial, explains the quasar's enormous measured energy (objects
located at the known universe edge)?
Chapter 12: Why and Where Quantum Forms
At previous chapters, we talked
about measuring: distances, speeds, locations, etc. An implicit assumption, for
those measurements, is that there is a set of three, four or more dimensions
space that can be defined.
So, when constrain dimension on
dimensionless nature space, find that the definition itself crates new option
measuring and defining of: location, velocity, mass, almost complete blank
points, which were the basis for this article, and also wavelength,
Self-frequency and so on.
As today customary, traditionally,
the space is set out of three space-dimensions (for example: x, y, z). Recently
a fourth dimension, for time, was setting. In fact, the definition itself is
the one cerates such limitation. For example: created dimensions limiting, on a
dimensionless space, follows that, an exact time measurement of a bases quantum
particle stops the time sequence in a way that
at next time point (next measurement) the same quantum particle can be
found everywhere else on its wave function. Two locations that do not have to
align with the principle, arises from the relativity theory, states that the
speed of light is the maximum speed– possible, so the principle of position
uncertainty is accepted. In the same way, one can show that measuring a quantum
particle at exact location, also, stops the time sequence so that the
constraint to find the particle at exact location gives the principle of time
uncertainty .Viz: Dimensions constrain, on dimensionless universe, is the cause
for time & location uncertainty principles ,which are of the quantum theory
basic principles, and actually is the one creates quantum theory itself.
The question to be asked is: whether
it is possible to define the space in another way of used today (for ex: as a vector
of three time dimensions and one position dimension)?
In my view, it is only from the
understanding that defining space, as known today, is one arbitrary definition,
of many other possible, one can conclude that there are many other different
options for setting dimensions for a dimensionless space, which each creates
different conception of the universe, actually a "different universe", much similar to the term "parallel universes", discussed at
the and of chapter #4.
In this case, since each different
definition of the same dimensionless space (another dimensions set) will give a
different partly understanding, which includes another nature laws (another
physics and mathematics), we will not seek for a complete coherence between the
different universes created by the different definitions. But we will
definitely look for a comprehensive natural laws, fitted every possible dimensions
At the first chapter, we raised the
article main novelty, showed that the quantum theory has no conflict with the
theory of relativity & gravity - force of it, as is commonly thought, but
even, combined the almost blank multi-dimensional space points definition,
contradict that the distortion of space itself lead to gravity, in a way
similar to the prediction that emerges from general relativity.
we showed that the quantum theory explains other phenomena, such as: dark
matter/energy, at the second chapter, matter/anti-matter at the sixth and
possible many other phenomena.
Finally, at Chapter Eleven, we
proposed a mind experiment to measure speed of light changes over time. As a
result, maybe, we got an explanation for other phenomena, like the inexplicable
high energy of the quasars.
Generally, this article, in
particular, discussed quantum effects of the universe structure. As revealed,
there are countless almost completely empty such points (Chapter #1),
which anyone self behave outward as matter/antimatter, (Chapter #6) particle/anti-particle
.So from a particle point of view and universe duality we will get additional, classic phenomena, as most of them are known.
Conclude with question, comes from
the previous chapter (# 12).
Is there any possibility that at the future,
dimensionless mathematics (physics) laws will be defined?