English version July 2020

Empty dimension as the appearance of everything

(...Quantum - gravity, dark matter/energy...
Or, possibly, a proposal for part of the "Theory of Everything")

Earn Shimony
Physicist (B.sc.), Business (MBA) and real estate appraiser

Chapter 1: Gravity


Revealed, out of now day's knowledge & available technological means, that most of the universe is composed out of unreachable deep blank volume. Consequence, one can, easily, describe the space as, mostly, complex out of almost blank multi-dimensional space points (black dots, Fig #2), each taking up tiny, up to dimensions in the nil, volume.
Assume that any such point is, all direction, surrounded by most similar points and consider quantum theory, which, inter alia, means:

• Mass, even aspires zero, has its typical: self-frequency & wavelength.
• As smaller the mass (quantum dimension), longer its self-frequency wavelength.
• As larger the mass, shorter its self-frequency wavelength, until unobservable above quantum sizes (Classic meaning).

Assume almost completely blank points, aims for zero mass, combined quantum theory reference (second mark), obtain huge, and actually strives to infinite, wavelength characteristic point. This wavelength, coming out of the point, all possible: directions & dimensions can be imagined (Fig #1) as pushing the external to the point space away, in a way creating rejection outwards of the point (defined: "point space distortion creation").
Fig # 1: an almost completely empty point, black circle, pushing the the space  All directions away, red arrows
Fig # 1: an almost completely empty point, black circle, pushing the the space, all directions away, red arrows
It is time to propose mathematical transformation conclusion vectors, generalization of "Lorentz transformation", in a way the velocity summarized "Lorentz transformation", is an individual case. With the transformation suggested, summarizing each vector warping space, create all points around, must be, in all directions & dimensions possible, by the most intensity, the warp space strength creates a single point, equals this power when dealing with countless points. Example of "Lorenz transformation" generalition: Suppose one moves at the speed of light on a train that moves at the speed of light that, in turn, moves on a train that moves at the speed of light and so on, n Such trains (n aspires infinite). Outcome of "Lorentz transformation" generalization and the fact that the speed of light is the maximum nature possible speed (Special Relativity Theory), that our speed, relative to earth surface (n trains), is no more, but much closer, to the speed of light itself.
Fig # 2: countless almost completely empty points and their impact on space (Two examples: top right and enlarged one at the center)
Fig # 2: countless almost completely empty points and their impact on space (Two examples: top right and enlarged one at the center)
Using the transformation suggested to sum vectors created both: all points around, and space point self distortion, as long as the point mass aims for zero and assuming a homogeneous dispersion of Infinite points number at the surrounding space, get the vectors to balance each other (zero sum), means that the net opposite effect on consideration point is offset - "loose equilibrium".
Investigate the summary of both vectors: space & self, created by tested point, in case the point mass is growing above quantum sizes (Fig #3), Get the wavelength of the point self-frequency to "reduced". Thus, after describing the wavelength as pushing the space away, the intensity of its space curve is decreased (Fig #3, blue arrows). Accepted that the summary vector space all points warping create around (red), which, on the mass point, remains unchanged, is greater than the "reduced" space warp mass self produced, in a way that the net total summary vectors warping space, all directions and possible dimensions, is into the mass, means the mass is "held" by space at "steady equilibrium", much like the mass classic definition - "body resistance to state changes".
Fig: # 3 red arrows depicted space warp effect, created all points around one large mass tested point, which is exceeds the reduced space distortion creates the mass itself, blue arrows.
Fig: # 3 red arrows depicted space warp effect, created all points around one large mass tested point,
which is exceeds the reduced space distortion creates the mass itself, blue arrows.

Hence, we see that, at nonzero mass, the quantum theory itself predict a space warping toward the mass, exactly as the general relativity theory prediction explains the gravity existence.

Chapter 2: Dark Matter/Energy


Further the connection between quantum theory & gravity discussion; is the time to deal with another aspect of self-frequency quantum sizes bodies. It is known that, having a body mass, one can easily calculate both: its self-frequency & characterized wavelength, which, as mentioned earlier, as far as we consider quantum sizes, is larger.
For example, purpose, refer to an almost empty point/"black hole", where part of the "wave function" can, in average over a long time, be out of the hole dimensions (defined: "tunnel effect" or "black hole evaporation").
Determine the "amount of matter" as a function of the observed part of the "wave function" and, at the exampled "black hole", supposed wavelength and self frequency such that part of the wave function, let's say 90 percent over time average, is outside the boundaries of the black hole. Thus due to the determination emerging of the Special relativity theory, that the speed of light is finite and the maximum possible, it is obtained that a viewer, located inside the black hole event horizon, measure only the matter amount proportional to the remainder wave-function part (10% over time average) while the mass he measures, since it is concentrated in the gravity center, would be the total average sum over time, outside and inside the black hole.
Assume, the entire universes known, is like the one describe, accept that, a viewers living inside, should feel mass that has no material or energy attached (defined: "dark matter"/"dark energy").
Fig: # 4: Description an average wave function over long time, red arrows, Which partly outside partly inside the black hole border, marked black.
Fig: # 4: Description an average wave function over long time, red arrows, Which partly outside partly inside the black hole border, marked black.

Chapter 3: Watcher located outside the Black Hole


Watcher, located outside, measures only the amount of matter proportional to the wave function part which is, over time average, out of the black hole, at the example 90%, while the mass he measures is the same mass as a inside viewer measure. This 90 percent disperse outside the black hole space, all directions equally at no preferred one, so that, in each space point it has a very much minor impact.
The sum vectors effect of all universe elements wave functions (black holes, masses and emptiness), on a space point, assuming homogeneous dispersion, state the "matter amount/energy levels, characteristics of the void" (E=mc^2) which would be proportional to the universe amount of matter. As shrink the black hole extent to the size of the minimum unit energy/mass possible, quanta only, it is found that, over time, nearly 100% of the wave-function is outside the hole. This quant disperses, homogeneously, outside black hole space (See chapter 12: about the dimensions limitation and the formation of quantum), over to infinite, with now preferred & equally: directions. So, it is being, whole and none of it, all at once ,everywhere in space defined .Thus, measuring device that places the quanta at any location or speed, in the space defined, in fact, being its minimum possible energy unit/mass, eliminates the possibility of finding (measuring) it, at the same time, anywhere else in the same space.
Obtained that, two different measurements, by times and distances, which seemingly contradictory the principle: the speed of light is the highest speed possible, which is within the base of the Special relativity theory, has no longer a contradiction, since the quanta has always been whole and no part of it to exist at the two points tested.

Chapter 4: Time/Universe age


Investigating the term "Time" shall begin by highlight that mentioned earlier: each point wavelength & frequency is characterized by over long time period typical average values, (defined: "equilibrium point").
Hence, the next obvious step would be assuming that there are wave function harmonic oscillations around the equilibrium point (defined: "steady equilibrium point"). For simplicity discussion purpose, let's assume a single-dimension universe (unit mass), quantum or non-quantum dimension, where the average wavelength over time, is an integer multiplier of a very large number of individual elementary distance units (defined: "elementary unit length").
Fig #5: Harmonic oscillation of the examined point, its center at left, Around equilibrium one dimension point, right small point.
Fig #5: Harmonic oscillation of the examined point, its center at left, Around equilibrium one dimension point, right small point.
At a random time, a wave function oscillation of (x) elemetary unit's length measured at either right or left side from equilibrium (into or out of the mass unit, Fig #5, red bottom arrows). Being the equilibrium point a stable equilibrium, statistically, at coming measures, the wave function vibration strive to return (Fig #5, red arrows top) .Since, according to the relativity theory, "speed of light" (Marked C) is the maximum speed possible, hence the time return to equilibrium, from the wave moving, at almost the speed of light, point of view, with assumption of constant speed momentary motion, is ,approximately, t (time units) = X (Single length units)/C ( km/sec) (t defined: "Basic Time Unit").
These return time & oscillation amplitude, an out of the wave function not moving watcher measure, as the relativity theory predicts are much longer - the time he measures (twin paradox) could be at about 14 billion year (approximate known universe age) when the oscillation amplitude he measures can be about the same magnitude as the known universe dimensions.
Does this mean that when dealing with quantum beings, such as electromagnetic radiation, distance & time are roughly the same variables - multiplication/difference by only a constant (speed of light "c")?
In my opinion - since time defined as a scalar, which, at least on average over many time units, proceed at one direction only, while distance (position), being a vector, can proceed at varied directions - the answer is negative
Obviously, when treat time as a vector size, like most other sizes, with power and direction, we get the option of "parallel universes". Using these universes, it can be, theoretically possible, to pass backward & forward in time.

Chapter 5: The Steady State Theory


It is clearly visible that the theory showed, generality with three known space dimensions, has more likely corresponds (with slightly movements around the steady equilibrium state) to the universe structure theory known the "steady state theory", less to the one known the "Big Bang theory", which is more prevalent today. Thus, since today the universe is seen as expanding, its current situation according our theory, found in one of the two following options: expanding either from the interior imaginary three-dimensional ball formed by summing up the three dimensional equilibrium points, back towards the surface of the three-dimensional equilibrium ball ((defined: "steady equilibrium ball surface" or "ball surface") Fig #5 lefttop red arrow) or, alternatively, out from steady equilibrium ball (Fig #5, lower right red arrow).
Perhaps, now it is appropriate to add that when the mass of the universe is indeed negligible, as assumed, then the oscillation amplitude around the equilibrium ball could, on one hand, expanded up to almost infinite, or, on the othert hand, shrink almost into zero dimensions - the "Big Bang" beginning dimensions. So, we get the "Big Bang", at least about the universe origin question at one singular point, to be a private case of the "steady state", as described.

Chapter 6: Material/anti material


As we demonstrate so far, any: emptiness, particle, unit masse or the universe itself, at any given time, is at oscillation around equilibrium ball surface. The possible oscillations modes are:

• "Expansion" as describe in the previous chapter.
• "Minimizing" from outside back towards the steady equilibrium ball surface (Fig #5, upper right red arrow) or from the ball surface back towards the center of the three dimensional imaginary ball, created by summing up the three dimensional space equilibrium points (Fig #5, lower left red arrow).

So, it is accepting that:

• In the case of "reduction" (Fig #6) ,the reduction vector summary space create (black center arrow), is slightly offset out of the space warp vector, generated by the point self-frequency itself (below in blue), in a way that its sum up with the space warp vector, creating dots around (red above), gives a total vector inside (defined: "gravity/material").
צימצום, מודגם במימד אחד.
Fig #6: Reduction, demonstration at one dimension.
• In the case of "expansion" (Fig #7), the summary vector space, expansion create (black arrow), is adding to the vector space warping creates by self-point frequency (Blue arrow) hence summarizing up with the vector space warping, create points around (red arrow), getting ,as soon as dealing with quantum order mass, that the total warp vector is outward the equilibrium ball surface (defined :"rejection/anti-matter").

Fig #7: Expansion, demonstration at one dimension
• In the case of mass at above quantum size "expansion", (Fig #7), the fact that the space vector distortion created by self-frequency (blue arrow) is negligible, as stated in the first chapter, we might get the vector space warping, points around the mass create (red arrow), to overcome the sum of the space warp vectors the expansion create (black arrow) and the self-fequency vector. Consequently, summarizing all vector space warping might result a net vector warping-space inside - "matter".

Hence, the rarity relative observation of "anti matter" is occurred, mainly in case of quantum scale expansion.
Conjunction with the first chapter work assumption, that most of the universe consists of almost completely empty points; it is accepted that almost half of the universe is complex out of anti-material.

Chapter 7: Speed of Light


So far, chapter five, we showed that, as harmonic oscillations around a "steady equilibrium ball" given, together with the implicit assumption that at all directions conditions are the same (perfect multi-dimensional ball), the steady-state theory, with slightly movement around the steady equilibrium as mentioned, is obtained. Continuing, assuming all directions are alike, and ask: Is the speed of expansion/reduction (Chapter 6) a constant "C"?
The answer to this question seems to be very simple. As a harmonic oscillation drives out of a released nervous spring, has the highest speed on the center (only kinetic energy) and the lowest on both ends (zero for a very short time). In such a way, at our multidimensional ball, the oscillation speed around a "stable equilibrium ball" can be described, as zero, at the edges, for a very short time, maximum, almost infinite assuming quantum dimention, at the center (equilibrium ball surface).
Hence, we get that the speed of light, which at a given time, assume to be the maximum possible speed in nature, must be equal to the oscillation moment velocity of the almost empty point/universe/black hole, and can vary ,over time, from zero (at edges) to almost infinity (at equilibrium ball surfece).
The question to be asked is whether measuring the changes within the speed of light over many years, say today and a billion years ago, can help to conclude the today state of the universe (present accurately expansion location) and thus to deduce the: mass of the universe, amount of meters in it, global gravity constant "G" ,characteristic energy level of the void and many other constants & variables ?

Chapter 8: Other Phenomena


As long as assumed perfect multi-dimensional ball structure, and no any priority axis, it is possible to use the result of the exampled one-dimension universe calculus math for higher dimensions. As changing the assumption slightly, the multi-ball is no longer perfect (yet much similar for a perfect multi-dimensional one), we should get, around the central oscillations, secondary multi-dimensional oscillations movements. As we are only three-dimensional space living creatures, side effects of higher space secondary dimensions, due to imperfect-spherical, will be extremely rare and shall be described by names such as: color, spin etc

Chapter 9: Multi-Universes/"Inflation of Universes"


At the article first chapter, we talked about multiple almost complete blank points. Later, chapters' #2 - #7, we built the possibility that each such point could be considered as a complete, on its own, universe. So, assume that the universe known today is almost complete blank point, one among many others, that make up a greater, by number of magnitude orders, universe, than our (defined: "Father universe"), inside this father, there are many smaller, like our, universes call them "Baby Universes".
For example: As known, most of the atom volume itself, the distance between the electrons and nucleus, for instance, is almost completely empty, so it might include a countless like universes. Remember that every material, including our bodies, is made up of enormous such atoms, it is accepted that even within the material making up our universe/body might be innumerable similar smaller size universes.
All remains is to show, the obvious: due to the fact that all sizes are getting smaller/bigger at the same order, in a way the laws of physics (nature) remain unchanged, regardless the size creature, a like-wise human being, live in such a universe, will not notice by its relative size (larger or smaller). For example: assumed forty orders bigger/smaller universe, the meter is greater/less from ours, according to the factor, 10 ^40 respectively (one following forty zeros).

Chapter 10: Speed of Light and Quantum Sizes


At the article first chapter, mentioned what revealed out off the quantum and relativity theories, as smaller the mass as longer its characteristic wavelength and more significant the quantum & relativity phenomena are (chapter #4). If so ,when live in smaller, by 40 magnitude orders from our universe, one might conclude that quantum phenomena are more meaningful, conclusion which at least prima facie, contradicts to the physics principle of invariance law, as in the previous section claimed to exist, regardless of the universe relative size.
For quantum phenomena examples, let's look, in both universes, at the speed of light. As known, body approaches the speed of light has: its mass increased, its self time decreased, and other quantum phenomena. Assuming that when transition from "father Universe" to "Baby universe" and visa versa one is, still, not be able to notice any changes within the speed of light magnitude, then he shall not be able notice any other changes in quantum phenomenon related, thus, it proves, even if partially, regardless of the universe relative size, the principle of invariance physics law .
As known, the speed of light in our universe, at the current oscillation state (Chapter 7), is approximately 300,000 km/sec. Defined, for convenience, meter & second as the basic measurement units for: distance & time, respectively get ,the speed of light would be around 3 million (meter /sec) or 3 million (elementary time units /elementary distance unit).
Showed, at the previous chapter, that all units increased/decreased, respectively, according the example by multiplying of 10^40 . So, even inside a "baby universe", which at the same oscillation state, one can define the speed of light exactly the same way, approximately 3 million (elementary time units/elementary distance units) - mathematical (10^40/10^40 =1)
Thus, any observer, at any universe, large or small in size orders, measure all magnitudes related to the speed of light at the same intensity, respect to the elementary measurement units defined.
Assume, what on the surface seem to be obvious, that all other quantum sizes behave the same way, get a watcher, located at any same oscillation state universe situation, measure the same: mass of the electron, Planck & gravity constants, etc .So, the supposedly contradiction, has been solved and the physics law invariance principle, regardless the relative universe size, is preserved.

Chapter 11: proposed experiment to test the theory


In this, last before final chapter, under the assumption that determines the speed of light is the maximum possible speed in nature, equal the accurate time oscillation speed (Chapter 7), we shall propose a mind experiment to investigate their changes, since the universe beginning to the present & future, all under determination (Episode 5) that we live in an expanded universe, which has two nature options: expansion out from equilibrium ball surface or widened from inside toward the equilibrium ball.
Let us now consider the options:
According the first option, the universe is expanding from the equilibrium ball surface, where the velocity of light/oscillation is maximal, outward, so that the velocity of light that was previously higher has decreasing over time. Hence a celestial object, today assumed at 9 billion light-years distance away, in such a universe, is actually farther away, so its real energy is higher than we think.
Consistent with the second option, which seems to be more in line with our current universe state ,the universe is expanding from interior toward the equilibrium ball surfsce. Then according chapter #6, combined with the assumption that its mass is at quantum sizes, our universe self-behave outward as antimatter/antiparticle. As mentioned, when this case, the speed of light/oscillation at the "birth of the universe" was slower ,aiming for zero ,and increasing along time .So, a body, today measured at 9 billion light years away is actually closer. Therefore, its real energy is much lower, by the ratio of the square of the distance differences, than we think.
Is the result of the second option, which states that the universe far-away objects are much closer than appears to us might, even partial, explains the quasar's enormous measured energy (objects located at the known universe edge)?

Chapter 12: the Quantum creating mechanism


At previous chapters, we talked about measuring: distances, speeds, locations, etc. An implicit assumption for those measurements is that: a set of three, four or more space-dimensions can be defined.
So, when constrain dimension on dimensionless nature space, find that the definition itself crates a new option of measuring and defining: location, velocity, mass, almost complete blank points, which were the basis for this article, and also wavelength, Self-frequency and so on.
As today customary, traditionally, the space is set out of three space-dimensions (for example: x, y, z). Recently a fourth dimension, for time, was setting. In fact, the definition itself is the one cerates such limitation (see also at the end of chapter 3). For example: created dimensions limiting, on a dimensionless space, follows that, an exact time measurement of a basic quantum particle stops the time sequence in a way that at next time point (next measurement) the same quantum particle can be found everywhere else on its wave function. Two locations that do not have to align with the principle, arises from the relativity theory, states that the speed of light is the maximum speed–possible, so the principle of position uncertainty is accepted. In the same way, one can show that finding a quantum particle, on the next measurment, at exact same location, also, stops the time sequence so that the constraint to find the particle at exact location gives the principle of time uncertainty .Viz: Dimensions constrain, on dimensionless universe, is the cause for time & location uncertainty principles ,which are of the quantum theory basic principles, and actually is the one creates quantum theory itself.
The question to be asked is: whether it is possible to define the space in another way of used today (for ex: as a vector of three time dimensions and one position dimension)?
In my view, it is only from the understanding that defining space, as known today, is just one arbitrary definition, of many other possible, one can conclude that there are many other different options for setting dimensions for a dimensionless space, which each creates different conception of the universe, actually a "different universe", much similar to the term "parallel universes", discussed at the and of chapter #4.
In this case, since each different definition of the same dimensionless space (other dimensions-set) will give a different partly understanding, which includes other nature laws (another physics and mathematics), we will not seek for a complete coherence between the different universes created by the different definitions. But we will, definitely, look for comprehensive natural laws, fitted every possible dimensions-set.



At the first chapter, we raised the article main novelty, showed that the quantum theory has no conflict with the theory of relativity & gravity - force of it, as is commonly thought, but even, combined the almost blank multi-dimensional space points definition, contradict that the distortion of space itself lead to gravity, in a way similar to the prediction emerges from general relativity.
Further, we showed that the quantum theory explains other phenomena, such as: dark matter/energy, at the second chapter, matter/anti-matter at the sixth and possible many other phenomena.
Finally, at Chapter Eleven, we proposed a mind experiment to measure speed of light changes over time. As a result, possibly, we got an explanation for other phenomena, for instance: the inexplicable high energy of the quasars.
Generally, this article, in particular, discussed quantum effects of the universe structure. As revealed, there are countless almost completely empty such points (Chapter #1), which anyone self behave outward as matter/antimatter, (Chapter #6) particle/anti-particle .So, from a particle point of view and universe duality we will get additional, classic phenomena, as most of them are known.

Conclude with question, comes from the previous chapter (# 12).

Is there any possibility that at the future comprehensive laws of dimensionless mathematics (physics) will be defined?